2015年06月

Cognitive Behavoural Therapy After Brain Injury

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in people with traumatic brain injuries. Cognitive Behavoural Therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy which can help people who are experiencing a wide range of mental health issues. What people think can affect how they feel and how they behave.

During times of mental distress, people think differently about themselves and what happens to them. Thoughts can become invasive and extreme, and are not helpful to the recovery of the patient. This can worsen how they feel. This may then cause them to behave in a way that prolongs their distress.

Clients and therapists work together to identify and understand problems in terms of the relationship between thoughts feelings and behaviour. This then leads to identification of personalised, usually time-limited therapy setting goals and strategies which are continually monitored and evaluated. The client learns to harness their own resources, and the treatments are inherently empowering in nature. I t is also carried on beyond the structured time of the therapy session, and the client is encouraged to put these empowering changes into practise between sessions (“homework”.)

the therapist uses approaches which can be used to help anyone irrespective of ability, culture race or gender or sexual preference. Cognitive and behavioural psychotherapy can be used on it’s own, or in conjunction with medication. This is dependant on the severity and nature of the symptoms the brain injured client exhibits.

Brain Swelling After Injury

Brain swelling after trauma is unavoidable, and is the end result of the many different kinds of injury to the brain. The other medical terminology for this swelling is called oedema,where the injured brain bleeds and may swell.

As the skull itself is a hard rigid structure, the brain presses harder and harder against the rigid skull, which causes dysfunction of the nerve cells. This may develop from a slight oedematous change to a worst case scenario, where, the brain itself begins to herniate down to the brain stem at the top of the spinal column.

The brain stem controls the body’s vital functions, so when the pressure builds

it, it has a detrimental effect at the back of the brain. The respiratory centre located here

will mal-function, causing the person to stop breathing, go into cardiac arrest, lose

consciousness, and if the herniation goes unchecked, die.

The first symptoms of increased pressure within the skull, include worsening headache, impaired thinking, decreased level of consciousness, and vomiting. Later the person may become unresponsive with both or one of their pupils widening.

Hospital admittance is necessary and X-Rays and CT and MRI scans may well be given to aid diagnosis. The medical staff must ensure that blood pressure and levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood are kept at desirable levels. Intravenous therapy is given, but carefully monitored, and diuretics such as furosemide and mannitol administered.

If seizures occur, anticonvulsants are given. A small pressure gauge may be implanted inside the skull to measure pressure build-up within the skull. This will also determine how well the treatments are preventing or treating the pressure elevation within the brain.

A catheter can be placed in the small space or ventricle which lie in the brain. The ventricle contains cerebrospinal fluid, which flows over the surface of the brain between the layers called the meninges. Any excess fluid can be drained off to reduce pressure.

Sometimes the surgeon will surgically open the skull to relieve the pressure and remove any blood and clots.

Serious Law are Serious injury lawyers with unrivalled expertise providing specialist services for spinal injury, brain injury, head and amputation clients from the UK's leading specialised injury law practice. More Information at http://www.seriousinjurylaw.co.uk/brain-head-injury-solicitors.php

Serious Law are Serious injury lawyers with unrivalled expertise providing specialist services for spinal injury, brain injury, head and amputation clients from the UK's leading specialised injury law practice. More Information at http://www.seriousinjurylaw.co.uk/brain-head-injury-solicitors.phphttp://www.bestdriversupdate.com/HPdrivers/ is a good website for you to download and update HP Drivers.
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1 month before the birthday party

Set a realistic budget – a small budget doesn’t mean a dull party. It just means you have to be more creative.

Pick your party date – avoid party dates on holidays and vacation dates because some of the invited friends may be out of town

Select a party theme – popular party themes are beach, Hawaii, popular movies

Make your guest list – the size of your guest list should be limited by your budget and the location of the party. If your house can only accommodate 30 people don’t invite a 100 people.

Purchase party supplies, party favors, and decorations.

2-3 weeks before your party

Purchase your party invitations and mail them. - If your guests have e-mail, you may be able to save a tree and go digital. Just e-mail your invitations to your guests.

Collect party game ideas – keep in mind your guests. If you are inviting kids to your party, your games should be different than games for grown ups. Have a selection of games available not just one. Some games may work better with some than others.

Plan what kind of food will you be serving. – If you have a limited budget, you could have a potluck party. A potluck party gives your guests a chance to shine by bringing their own special food creations.

If you need help with preparation ask friends and family.

1 week before the party

Order the birthday party cake – if you bake your own cake, you don’t need to worry about this.

You can save time by cooking food in advance and keeping it in the freezer until the day of the party.

2-3 days before the party

Make sure you have film in the camera or that you have enough batteries for the digital camera

Try to get an exact guest count – contact key people and confirm that they will be able to make it to the party.

Get decorations ready and make sure you have everything you need.

1 day before the party

Get a good night’s sleep – parties are fun but they require a lot of work and you have to be strong

Decorate and prepare the food.

Make sure the party area is safe for all – keep children and people with disabilities in mind.

The Big Day - Party Time!

Get the balloons ready

Prepare foods ready

Make sure you take pictures – if you are busy put a friend in charge of taking pictures and making the video.

Enjoy, relax and have fun! You have worked hard to create a special time for you and your guests.

Birthday Party Favors Chocolate party favors for birthday, graduation, birth announcement, baby shower, weddings and more.http://blog.bestpcfixer.net/
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Some may think that the aspiring teachers are the only ones that benefit from peer mentoring and coaching programs in education. However, the educators who are coaching these new teachers can learn a lot as well. As a teacher mentor, you gain an invaluable experience. By collaborating with colleagues and learning how to successfully and effectively advise novice teachers, a teacher mentor can gain more than imagined.

However, you can’t just expect to teach a new teacher everything you know by simply reading a laundry list of points to remember. There are ways to develop and utilize effective practices for these new teachers as a helpful teacher mentor. As older teachers begin to retire it’s important that the newer teachers are taught and mentored well because they will be an important part of the education system. These new teachers that are about to enter into all of the daunting responsibilities of the classroom need a support system that allows them to transition from theory to practice. Being a teacher mentor is an important role because mentoring new teachers can help them improve and strengthen their skills and practices and thus, keep them in the profession.

Teaching can be such a demanding and complicated profession. It’s important for a teacher mentor to know that they can also learn a lot from mentoring. For example, veteran teachers need to remain current with new teaching methods, stay energized in the classroom, and experience periodic professional renewal in order to avoid burnout. Being a mentor can help with this. It helps to remember that all educators are lifelong learners and working in partnership with colleagues enhances classroom practices, improves student learning and builds school communities. So being involved with peer mentoring and coaching not only improves your well being, it helps students learn better as well.

There are a few things you can do to become an effective teacher mentor. It all depends on the methods used and on whether or not you identify and analyze the needs of the mentee in the mentor relationship. After identifying the needs, the mentor should review and research and then outline an effective plan that will meet their state mandates for an effective mentor program. One of the first things a mentor can do is to help make the mentee understand the school environment and culture.

The next step for a teacher mentor could be to help improve the skills needed for successful classroom instruction. Many new teachers may need assistance with classroom management skills with new guidelines to follow. Another issue that a novice teacher may need advice on is the issue of balancing work with their personal lives. These are all important issues to have a grasp on for a new teacher when he or she is about to enter the classroom. It’s helpful to also use real life situations in order to give a new teacher ways to cope with the issue because they are bound to encounter the same.

Overall, it’s important to remember that you can also learn a lot from your mentee. Keep the lines of communication open, even after the relationship is formally over, and be willing to listen, learn and practice new techniques.

Vince Welsh is CEO of Teacher Education Institute. TEI offers rigorous, graduate-level professional development courses for K-12 classroom teachers. For more about TEI or teacher mentor visit http://www.teachereducation.comhttp://articles.bestpcfixer.net/
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In any auto warranty that you do choose make sure that you understand that it is an investment for you and will save you money down the road. You never know when something will happen to your vehicle and you want to make sure you are covered if it does.

When purchasing a vehicle you are really making an investment for you and your family. Vehicles are so expensive now that you need to hold on to those vehicles for as long as possible. The best way to do that is with a good auto warranty. An auto warranty is a contract of service that is guaranteed to be paid for by the warranty company. The warranty company will be the one paying for the expenses not you. You are already paying for the auto warranty in your monthly vehicle payment.

Auto warranties come in a range of choices as do most things. Knowing what is right for you and your vehicle depends on your driving habits, how many miles per year you will be driving and how much money you want to pay per month for the auto warranty. You will be given choices from manufacturer's warranties, extended warranties and product warranties. The financial manager where you are buying your vehicle will help to explain these types of warranties but it also helps to know a little bit about them before you go in.

A manufacturer's warranty is a limited warranty that comes with the vehicle. It will only cover your vehicle for a certain amount of months and a certain amount of miles. This is where you can decide to chance that you will not have any problems after the manufacturer's warranty is void or you can invest in an extended warranty.

Extended warranties or vehicle service contracts are an extension of the manufacturer's warranty with a few added bonuses. You will have a choice on the amount of time that you want the extended warranties this determination will depend on how much money you are willing to invest. A few bonuses of an extended warranty are 24/7 roadside service, flat tire repair, fuel delivery and towing. Many extended warranties also come with rental car reimbursement. If you do not wan the added expense of an auto warranty you can deny one or go with just a product warranty.

A product warranty covers a lot less parts and has no added bonuses. This type of warranty is only allowed to cover parts that are in direct contact with parts that are mechanical. Product warranties are not sold separately they must be offered free of charge, but they do not have to be guaranteed by an insurance company like the extended warranties do.

In any auto warranty that you do choose make sure that you understand that it is an investment for you and will save you money down the road. You never know when something will happen to your vehicle and you want to make sure you are covered if it does.

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"it's a small world" is one of the most beloved attractions at Disneyland. After 42 years, people from around the world still bake a beeline for this charming, low-tech, whimsical boat ride. Yet, in 2008 it was showing its age and in need of refurbishment. So the Disney Imagineers shut the ride down for some months as they made repairs, spruced up existing characters and scenes, and added a few subtle changes.

In particular, Disneyland has added a couple dozen new "residents" to the "it's a small world" community. The ride re-opened to the Disneyland public on Friday, February 6, 2009 after a day or two of limited access. We took a ride through "small world" on Friday with a former cast member who had been a Lead and Trainer on the attraction. She helped us identify and photograph many of the changes.

The exterior of "it's a small world" has not changed much, which apparently is just the way millions of visitors want it. There's some new paint and minor touches, but it still has the same quaint entrance. Despite the simple technology, guests to Disneyland just love this ride. Repairs included major work on the fiberglass flumes in which the boats travel; they were leaking water in surprising quantities we're told.

There was no-doubt a lot of work on pumps, controllers and other unexciting behind-the-scenes stuff. Our former cast member did observe that the boats moved more smoothly through the ride, especially near the loading area.

What was done inside "it's a small world?" We are pleased to report that the Disneyland designers have stayed true to the original feel. The ride actually looks much the same inside; the most obvious change is that the guests now float through one new room showing vignettes of Americana-- a room more-fully dedicated to Walt Disney's homeland and North America in general. It includes a bit of Hollywood, along with a scene of farmland and the frontier west.

However, scattered throughout "it's a small world" are little additions. You have to look for them; some are easy to spot and others require good eyes. This will make it more fun for Disneyland guests who are very familiar with the ride; look for new additions like you watch for Hidden MIckeys in the park or seek references to the movies in the "Pirates of the Caribbean" attraction.

Near the beginning of your world cruise you'll see Alice and the White Rabbit. Cinderella is also there with a couple of her mice friends. You'll come across Pinocchio (with short nose), and shortly thereafter will find Aladdin, Abu and Jasmine flying overhead with their friends (no Genie that we saw). Ariel and Flounder are there along with Peter Pan and Tinker Bell. There are quite a few other favorite Disney characters, old and new. Look for Sheriff Woody and his companion Bullseye from Toy Story. Donald Duck can be found south of the border. The music has been tweaked a bit, with new ethnic instruments added here and there.

So if you've been a fan of "it's a small world" you won't be disappointed. The new additions (over two dozen we're told) will have you paying attention as you float from continent to continent, making the attraction more fun for newcomers and old timers alike. If you are a local, put "it's a small world" back on your Disneyland attraction list!

Michael is a Southern California native, and has written on numerous topics. View the latest photos of Disneyland's "it's a small world" ride at: The SoCal Vacation Guru.http://articles.bestpcfixer.net/
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